These papers are available in full text through the buttons above as well as through the citations below.
FORTHCOMING: The sexes serve to purge mutations by selection on males, boosting the function of sex to maintain genome integrity.
NEW: Moxon SP (2017) Only Male Genital Modification is a Form of Control; its Female Counterpart Originated as a Female-Initiated Competitive Ploy. New Male Studies 6(2), 126-165. http://newmalestudies.com/OJS/index.php/nms/article/view/262/318
Moxon, SP (2016) (book)] Sex Difference Explained: From DNA to Society — Purging Gene Copy Errors. A ‘bottom-up’ from biology cutting-edge holistic understanding of men/ women: a layman’s guide to the converging lines of evidence for profound male-female distinction serving complementarity.
A monograph for the New Male Studies journal, it’s available from Amazon.com & Amazon.co.uk in both paperback and Kindle versions; plus it’s open-access on the NMS website.
Amazon US paperback http://tinyurl.com/h8s5ujs Kindle eBook http://tinyurl.com/gwtsdpo Amazon UK paperback http://tinyurl.com/zh3cnux Kindle eBook http://tinyurl.com/hlxg5ko
This is the first time anyone has properly attempted to put forward a truly integrated account of human sociality, utilising all the latest lines of evidence in theory re male hierarchy, female ‘personal network’, the very different in-grouping according to sex, and pair-bonding.
The core argument is that all major aspects of male-female human sociality necessarily stem from biological principles; which all arise in solving the core problem faced by all life-forms: the relentless build-up of mistakes in the repeated copying of genes.
Explanation here has to be bottom-up, not top-down, because that is the direction of causation: all else is feedback, which in inherent in any system if it is to avoid breakdown. Culture – that is, the facility to have and behave in this way – could not have evolved unless its function is to feed back to and fine-tune the very underlying biology that gave rise to it. So the more complex the organism becomes, then the better it gets at being faithful to and expressing its biology. The notion that instead somehow we go off on a novel tangent and ‘escape’ biology is the very opposite of what happens.
To deal with all the accumulated gene replication error, the ‘bad’ genes somehow have to be filtered out, and this is the function of the male: why males came into being, and why men so fiercely compete with one another to form a hierarchy.
The female contribution to this ‘genetic filter’ mechanism is carefully to choose only the most dominant/prestigious males, cross-checking that indeed they do possess the best gene sets. This ensures genetic mutations and other errors that would seriously compromise reproduction are purged from the local gene pool.
With men tied to a hierarchy, women evolved to ‘marry out’ to avoid in-breeding. In preparation for this, girls have a very different social organisation, rehearsing for when later they have to make close bonds with non-kin, stranger-females for mutual child-care. This explains why female grouping is so tight and exclusionary, whereas males group all-inclusively.
Pair-bonding serves to exclude lower-ranked, whilst allowing access by still higher-ranked males; and to provide a serial father of children, thereby in effect projecting forward in time a woman’s peak fertility, compensating for her deteriorating store of eggs, and consequent declining fertility and attractiveness. But although this is clearly all in the female interest, the male also gets something out of ‘marriage’: a more fertile partner than he would be able to acquire for ‘no-strings’ (promiscuous) sex. It’s cross-sex bargaining.
The upshot is that there’s an underlying sex dichotomy, to be sure; but it’s perfectly complementary, with the sexes of equal importance in what amounts to a symbiosis.
Moxon SP (2015) Stress mechanism is sex-specific: Female amelioration or escape from stress to avoid compromising reproduction contrasts with male utilisation or in effect manufacture of stress to fulfil male ‘genetic filter’ function. New Male Studies 4(3) 50-62. http://www.newmalestudies.com/OJS/index.php/nms/article/view/194/222
Moxon SP (2015) Competitiveness is profoundly sex-differential, consistent with being biologically based and within-, not between-sex. New Male Studies 4(2) 39-51. http://www.newmalestudies.com/OJS/index.php/nms/article/view/186
Moxon SP (2014) Partner violence as female-specific in aetiology. New Male Studies 3(3) 69-92. http://www.newmalestudies.com/OJS/index.php/nms/article/view/149
Moxon SP (2014) Intimate-partner violence is not merely non-‘gendered’ but predominantly and apparently in essence female-perpetrated: the inverse of ideological constructs now debunked, and congruent with inter-sexual dynamics and the basis of human pair-bonding, (commissioned as a book chapter in Partner Violence: Risk Factors, Therapeutic Interventions and Psychological Impact. Nova Science Publishing).
Moxon SP (2014) From DNA repair to social minds: The root of sex-dichotomous psychology and behaviour. Presentation for the conference ‘From DNA To Social Minds’, University of York, June/July 2014.
Moxon SP (2014) Demographic transition as caused by biological effects of social dislocation: adaptive reproductive-suppression triggered by ‘crowding’ stress of males transmitted epigenetically to female offspring multi-generationally; plus out-breeding fertility depression through genetic incompatibilities. [Accepted for conference presentation]
Moxon SP (2013) Human pair-bonding as primarily a service to the female [in excluding other males of lower (but not higher) mate-value, and a buffer against her own age-related mate-value decline]. New Male Studies 2 (2) 24-38 http://newmalestudies.com/OJS/index.php/nms/article/view/71
Moxon SP (2012) The origin of the sexual divide in the ‘genetic filter’ function: Male disadvantage and why it is not perceived. New Male Studies 1(3) 96-124 http://newmalestudies.com/OJS/index.php/nms/article/view/47
Moxon SP (2012) Submission to the inquiry ‘Women in the Workplace’, for The Business, Innovation and Skills Select Committee, House of Commons. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmselect/cmbis/writev/womeninworkplace/m22.htmo [Find also under the button, above, ‘Why Few Women are at the Top’.]
Moxon SP (2011) Beyond staged retreat behind virtual ‘gender paradigm’ barricades: The rise and fall of the misrepresentation of partner-violence and its eclipse by an understanding of mate-guarding. Journal of Aggression, Conflict & Peace Research 3(1) 45-54 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1932380&show=html [Find also under the button above, ‘Partner Violence is Mainly FEMALE’.]
Moxon SP (2010) Culture is biology: Why we cannot ‘transcend’ our genes — or ourselves. Politics & Culture (journal). Symposium, ‘How Is Culture Biological?’ http://www.politicsandculture.org/2010/04/29/symposium-on-the-question-how-is-culture-biological-six-essays-and-discussions-essay-1-by-steve-moxon-culture-is-biology-why-we-cannot-transcend-our-genes%E2%80%94or-ourselves/
Moxon SP (2009) Dominance as adaptive stressing and ranking of males, serving to allocate reproduction by differential self-suppressed fertility: Towards a fully biological understanding of social systems. Medical Hypotheses 73(1) 5-14 http://www.medical-hypotheses.com/article/S0306-9877(09)00145-5/abstract
Moxon SP (2008) The Woman Racket: The New Science Explaining How the Sexes Relate at Work, at Play and in Society. Imprint Academic. [Book] http://www.imprint.co.uk/books/TWR.html
Moxon SP (2012) The origin and nature of warfare is not explained but obscured by cultural-anthropological and feminist perspectives, that generate implausible notions of how warfare can be subdued [This paper was in journal peer review but was politically ‘spiked’ by the cultural anthropologist Douglas Fry, whose position, shared with his protogé, Judith Hand, this paper counters. It is to Hand’s political, non-scientific paper that originally this was in reply.] [Find under the button, above, ‘Why Woman Won’t Whack War’.]
Further review papers and a new book are in preparation. Soon will be an overview of ostensible inter-sexual competition, revealing it to be intra-sexual competition and inter-sexual sexual display. Before this will be a paper putting forward a new adaptive theory of the global demographic transition, with a review of the topic showing the need for a new perspective. There has been so much development in the science — and in my own knowledge and understanding of it — that a major new cross-disciplinary overview is needed rather than an update of The Woman Racket.