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Steve Moxon, Deepcar near Sheffield, UK. stevemoxon3(at)

All the following peer-reviewed science review papers from 2009> are available in full text through the buttons above as well as at their journal homes

NEW: Moxon SP (2023) Dominance Hierarchy is Male-Specific: it is Not Bi-(Inter-)Sexual Nor Female. New Male Studies 12.1, 1-28 [Full text at and under the button above]

Moxon SP (2022) The Demographic Transition is Rooted in Social Stressing of Males Triggering Epigenetically Induced Infertility of Exogamous (Female) Offspring, to Compromise Out-Group Reproduction, Forestalling Natal Group Extinction. New Male Studies 11.2, 1-21 [Find at and under the button above]

Moxon SP (2022) Sex is not non-binary (or mutable), and neither is sexual identity or orientation. New Male Studies 11.1, 21-43. Find at and under the button above]

Moxon SP (2021) Male Heterogeneity and Female Choice in Human Mating: Maximising Female Fertility by Offsetting Stress, Age and Unwanted Attention While Facilitating Extra-Pair Conception. New Male Studies 10(1), 8-29 & 10(2) (for part 2). Find also under the button above.

Moxon SP (2020) How and Why Partner Violence is Normal Female Behaviour but Aberrational Male Behaviour. New Male Studies 9(1), 1-23. [& button above] Video presentation at                           

Moxon SP (2019) The Falsity of Identity Politics (PC): Negative Attitude is Specifically to Males and for Any Difference, in Policing Male Sexual Access by Gate-Keeping Group Membership. New Male Studies 8(2), 20-51. [Find also under the button above, ‘The falsity of Identity Politics’]

Moxon SP (2019) The Sexes Serve to Purge Mutations by Selection on Males, Boosting the Function of Sex to Maintain Genomic Integrity. New Male Studies 8(1), 25-51. [Find also under the button above, ‘Sexes Function to Purge Mutations Via Selection on Males’]

Moxon SP (2018) Misogyny has No Scientific Basis of Any Kind: the Evidence is of Philogyny. New Male Studies 7(2), 26-42. [For the longer version, see button above, ‘Misogyny has No Scientific basis’]

Moxon SP (2017) Only Male Genital Modification is a Form of Control; its Female Counterpart Originated as a Female-Initiated Competitive Ploy. New Male Studies 6(2), 126-165. [Find also under the button above, ‘Only Male Genital Modification is a Form of Control’]

Moxon SP (2016) (book) Sex Difference Explained: From DNA to Society — Purging Gene Copy Errors. A ‘bottom-up’ from biology cutting-edge holistic understanding of men/ women: a layman’s guide to the converging lines of evidence for profound male-female distinction serving complementarity. [For papers going back to 2009, see below this book blurb.]

  A monograph for the New Male Studies journal, it’s available from & in both paperback and Kindle versions; plus it’s open-access on the NMS website.  Amazon US paperback Kindle eBook Amazon UK paperback Kindle eBook [Also find under the button above, ‘Sex Difference Explained’]

  This is the first time anyone has properly attempted to put forward a truly integrated account of human sociality, utilising all the latest lines of evidence in theory re male hierarchy, female ‘personal network’, the very different in-grouping according to sex, and pair-bonding.

  The core argument is that all major aspects of male-female human sociality necessarily stem from biological principles; which all arise in solving the core problem faced by all life-forms: the relentless build-up of mistakes in the repeated copying of genes.

  Explanation here has to be bottom-up, not top-down, because that is the direction of causation: all else is feedback, which in inherent in any system if it is to avoid breakdown. Culture – that is, the facility to have and behave in this way – could not have evolved unless its function is to feed back to and fine-tune the very underlying biology that gave rise to it. So the more complex the organism becomes, then the better it gets at being faithful to and expressing its biology. The notion that instead somehow we go off on a novel tangent and ‘escape’ biology is the very opposite of what happens.

To deal with all the accumulated gene replication error, the ‘bad’ genes somehow have to be filtered out, and this is the function of the male: why males came into being, and why men so fiercely compete with one another to form a hierarchy.

The female contribution to this ‘genetic filter’ mechanism is carefully to choose only the most dominant/prestigious males, cross-checking that indeed they do possess the best gene sets. This ensures genetic mutations and other errors that would seriously compromise reproduction are purged from the local gene pool.

With men tied to a hierarchy, women evolved to ‘marry out’ to avoid in-breeding. In preparation for this, girls have a very different social organisation, rehearsing for when later they have to make close bonds with non-kin, stranger-females for mutual child-care. This explains why female grouping is so tight and exclusionary, whereas males group all-inclusively.

Pair-bonding serves to exclude lower-ranked, whilst allowing access by still higher-ranked males; and to provide a serial father of children, thereby in effect projecting forward in time a woman’s peak fertility, compensating for her deteriorating store of eggs, and consequent declining fertility and attractiveness. But although this is clearly all in the female interest, the male also gets something out of ‘marriage’: a more fertile partner than he would be able to acquire for ‘no-strings’ (promiscuous) sex. It’s cross-sex bargaining.

The upshot is that there’s an underlying sex dichotomy, to be sure; but it’s perfectly complementary, with the sexes of equal importance in what amounts to a symbiosis.

Moxon SP (2015) Stress mechanism is sex-specific: Female amelioration or escape from stress to avoid compromising reproduction contrasts with male utilisation or in effect manufacture of stress to fulfil male ‘genetic filter’ function. New Male Studies 4(3) 50-62. [Find also under the button, above, ‘Stress Mechanism is Sex-Specific’]

Moxon SP (2015) Competitiveness is profoundly sex-differential, consistent with being biologically based and within-, not between-sex. New Male Studies 4(2) 39-51. [Find also under the button, above, Competitiveness is a Male Domain’]

Moxon SP (2014) Partner violence as female-specific in aetiology. New Male Studies 3(3) 69-92. [Find also under the button, above, ‘Partner Violence Female Aetiology’]

Moxon SP (2014) Intimate-partner violence is not merely non-‘gendered’ but predominantly and apparently in essence female-perpetrated: the inverse of ideological constructs now debunked, and congruent with inter-sexual dynamics and the basis of human pair-bonding, (commissioned as a book chapter in Partner Violence: Risk Factors, Therapeutic Interventions and Psychological Impact. Nova Science Publishing). [Find also under the button, above, ‘Partner Violence Mostly BY Women’]

Moxon SP (2014) From DNA repair to social minds: The root of sex-dichotomous psychology and behaviour. Presentation for the conference ‘From DNA To Social Minds’, University of York, June/July 2014. [Find also under the button, above, ‘From DNA Repair to Social Minds’]

Moxon SP (2014) Demographic transition as caused by biological effects of social dislocation: adaptive reproductive-suppression triggered by ‘crowding’ stress of males transmitted epigenetically to female offspring multi-generationally; plus out-breeding fertility depression through genetic incompatibilities. [Accepted for conference presentation] [Find also under the button, above, ‘Adaptive Demographic Transition’]

Moxon SP (2013) Human pair-bonding as primarily a service to the female [in excluding other males of lower (but not higher) mate-value, and a buffer against her own age-related mate-value decline]. New Male Studies 2 (2) 24-38 [Find also under the button, above, ‘Pair-Bonding Serves Women’]

Moxon SP (2012) The origin of the sexual divide in the ‘genetic filter’ function: Male disadvantage and why it is not perceived. New Male Studies 1(3) 96-124 [Find also under the button, above, ‘The Sexual Divide’]

Moxon SP (2012) The Reasons Why Women Won’t Match Men in the Workplace Irrespective of Whatever Action is Taken — Submission to the inquiry ‘Women in the Workplace’, for The Business, Innovation and Skills Select Committee, House of Commons. also at [Find also under the button, above, ‘Why Few Women are at the Top’.]

Moxon SP (2011) Beyond staged retreat behind virtual ‘gender paradigm’ barricades: The rise and fall of the misrepresentation of partner-violence and its eclipse by an understanding of mate-guarding. Journal of Aggression, Conflict & Peace Research 3(1) 45-54. [Find also under the button above, ‘Gender Violence Paradigm is Dead’.]

Moxon SP (2010) Culture is biology: Why we cannot ‘transcend’ our genes — or ourselves. Politics & Culture (journal). Symposium, ‘How Is Culture Biological?’ [Find also under the button, above, ‘Culture IS Biology’]

Moxon SP (2009) Dominance as adaptive stressing and ranking of males, serving to allocate reproduction by differential self-suppressed fertility: Towards a fully biological understanding of social systems. Medical Hypotheses 73(1) 5-14 [Find also under the button, above, ‘Dominance as Adaptive Stressing’]

Moxon SP (2008) The Woman Racket: The New Science Explaining How the Sexes Relate at Work, at Play and in Society. Imprint Academic. [Book]

Moxon SP (2012) The origin and nature of warfare is not explained but obscured by cultural-anthropological and feminist perspectives, that generate implausible notions of how warfare can be subdued [This paper was in journal peer review but was politically ‘spiked’ in peer review.] [Find under the button, above, ‘Why Woman Won’t Whack War’.]

Further review papers and a new book are always in preparation.